Monday, January 02, 2006

References for Dry Eye Disease

References
Chen, H. B., Yamabayashi, S., Ou, B., Tanaka, Y., Ohno, S., and Tsukahara, S. (1997) Structure and composition of rat precorneal tear film. A study by an in vivo cryofixation, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38, 381-387.
Gipson, I. K., and Inatomi, T. (1998) Cellular origin of mucins of the ocular surface tear film, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 438, 221-227.
Nichols, B. A., Chiappino, M. L., and Dawson, C. R. (1985) Demonstration of the mucous layer of the tear film by electron microscopy, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26, 464-473.
Gipson, I. K. (2004) Distribution of mucins at the ocular surface, Exp. Eye. Res. 78, 379-388.
Prydal, J. I., and Campbell, F. W. (1992) Study of precorneal tear film thickness and structure by interferometry and confocal microscopy, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33, 1996-2005.
Prydal, J. I., Artal, P., Woon, H., and Campbell, F. W. (1992) Study of human precorneal tear film thickness and structure using laser interferometry, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33, 2006-2011.
McCulley, J. P., and Shine, W. E. (1998) Meibomian secretions in chronic blepharitis, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 438, 319-326.
McCulley, J. P., and Shine, W. (1997) A compositional based model for the tear film lipid layer, Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 95, 79-88; discussion 88-93.
Greiner, J. V., Glonek, T., Korb, D. R., Booth, R., and Leahy, C. D. (1996) Phospholipids in meibomian gland secretion, Ophthalmic Res 28, 44-49.
McCulley, J. P., and Shine, W. E. (2004) The lipid layer of tears: dependent on meibomian gland function, Exp. Eye. Res. 78, 361-365.
Schindler, H. (1989) Planar lipid-protein membranes: strategies of formation and of detecting dependencies of ion transport functions on membrane conditions, Methods Enzymol 171, 225-253.
Somerharju, P., Virtanen, J. A., and Cheng, K. H. (1999) Lateral organisation of membrane lipids. The superlattice view, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1440, 32-48.
McDonald, J. E. (1969) Surface phenomena of the tear film, Am J Ophthalmol 67, 56-64.
Korb, D. R., Greiner, J. V., Glonek, T., Whalen, A., Hearn, S. L., Esway, J. E., and Leahy, C. D. (1998) Human and rabbit lipid layer and interference pattern observations, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 438, 305-308.
Fullard, R. J. (1988) Identification of proteins in small tear volumes with and without size exclusion HPLC fractionation, Curr. Eye Res. 7, 163-179.
Gachon, A. M., Richard, J., and Dastugue, B. (1982) Human tears: normal protein pattern and individual protein determinations in adults, Curr. Eye Res. 2, 301-308.
Sack, R. A., Beaton, A., Sathe, S., Morris, C., Willcox, M., and Bogart, B. (2000) Towards a closed eye model of the pre-ocular tear layer, Prog Retin Eye Res 19, 649-668.
2Sack, R. A., Tan, K. O., and Tan, A. (1992) Diurnal tear cycle: evidence for a nocturnal inflammatory constitutive tear fluid, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33, 626-640.
Sitaramamma, T., Shivaji, S., and Rao, G. N. (1998) HPLC analysis of closed, open, and reflex eye tear proteins, Indian J Ophthalmol 46, 239-245.
Glasgow, B. J., Abduragimov, A. R., Farahbakhsh, Z. T., Faull, K. F., and Hubbell, W. L. (1995) Tear lipocalins bind a broad array of lipid ligands, Curr. Eye Res. 14, 363-372.
Gasymov, O. K., Abduragimov, A. R., Yusifov, T. N., and Glasgow, B. J. (1999) Binding studies of tear lipocalin: the role of the conserved tryptophan in maintaining structure, stability and ligand affinity, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1433, 307-320.
Glasgow, B. J., Marshall, G., Gasymov, O. K., Abduragimov, A. R., Yusifov, T. N., and Knobler, C. M. (1999) Tear lipocalins: potential lipid scavengers for the corneal surface, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 40, 3100-3107.
Redl, B., Holzfeind, P., and Lottspeich, F. (1992) cDNA cloning and sequencing reveals human tear prealbumin to be a member of the lipophilic-ligand carrier protein superfamily, J. Biol. Chem. 267, 20282-20287.
Delaire, A., Lassagne, H., and Gachon, A. M. (1992) New members of the lipocalin family in human tear fluid, Exp. Eye. Res. 55, 645-647.
Fullard, R. J., and Kissner, D. M. (1991) Purification of the isoforms of tear specific prealbumin, Curr. Eye Res. 10, 613-628.
Nagyova, B., and Tiffany, J. M. (1999) Components responsible for the surface tension of human tears, Curr. Eye Res. 19, 4-11.
Tiffany, J. M. (1978) Individual variations in human meibomian lipid composition, Exp. Eye. Res. 27, 289-300.
Nicolaides, N., Kaitaranta, J. K., Rawdah, T. N., Macy, J. I., Boswell, F. M., 3rd, and Smith, R. E. (1981) Meibomian gland studies: comparison of steer and human lipids, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 20, 522-536.
Glasgow, B. J., Abduragimov, A. R., Yusifov, T. N., and Gasymov, O. K. (1998) Studies of ligand binding and CD analysis with apo- and holo-tear lipocalins, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 438, 105-112.
Glasgow, B. J., Abduragimov, A. R., Gassymov, O. K., Yusifov, T. N., Ruth, E. C., and Faull, K. F. (2002) Vitamin E associated with the lipocalin fraction of human tears, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 506, 567-572.
Schmale, H., Holtgreve-Grez, H., and Christiansen, H. (1990) Possible role for salivary gland protein in taste reception indicated by homology to lipophilic-ligand carrier proteins, Nature 343, 366-369.
van't Hof, W., Blankenvoorde, M. F., Veerman, E. C., and Amerongen, A. V. (1997) The salivary lipocalin von Ebner's gland protein is a cysteine proteinase inhibitor, J. Biol. Chem. 272, 1837-1841.
Selsted, M. E., and Martinez, R. J. (1982) Isolation and purification of bactericides from human tears, Exp. Eye. Res. 34, 305-318.
Josephson, A. S., and Wald, A. (1969) Enhancement of lysozyme activity by anodal tear protein, Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 131, 677-679.
Bibel, D. J., Miller, S. J., Brown, B. E., Pandey, B. B., Elias, P. M., Shinefield, H. R., and Aly, R. (1989) Antimicrobial activity of stratum corneum lipids from normal and essential fatty acid-deficient mice, J Invest Dermatol 92, 632-638.
Miller, S. J., Aly, R., Shinefeld, H. R., and Elias, P. M. (1988) In vitro and in vivo antistaphylococcal activity of human stratum corneum lipids, Arch Dermatol 124, 209-215.
Fluckinger, M., Haas, H., Merschak, P., Glasgow, B. J., and Redl, B. (2004) Human tear lipocalin exhibits antimicrobial activity by scavenging microbial siderophores, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48, 3367-3372.
Lemp, M. A. (1998) Epidemiology and classification of dry eye, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 438, 791-803.
Oden, N. L., Lilienfeld, D. E., Lemp, M. A., Nelson, J. D., and Ederer, F. (1998) Sensitivity and specificity of a screening questionnaire for dry eye, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 438, 807-820.
Moss, S. E., Klein, R., and Klein, B. E. (2000) Prevalence of and risk factors for dry eye syndrome, Arch Ophthalmol 118, 1264-1268.
Murube, J., Murube, A., and Zhuo, C. (1998) Classification of artificial tears. II: Additives and commercial formulas, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 438, 705-715.
Janssen, P. T., and van Bijsterveld, O. P. (1986) Tear fluid proteins in Sjogren's syndrome, Scand J Rheumatol Suppl 61, 224-227.
Schoenwald, R. D., Vidvauns, S., Wurster, D. E., and Barfknecht, C. F. (1997) Tear film stability of protein extracts from dry eye patients administered a sigma agonist, J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 13, 151-161.
Nichols, K. K., Mitchell, G. L., and Zadnik, K. (2004) The repeatability of clinical measurements of dry eye, Cornea 23, 272-285.
McCulley, J. P., Dougherty, J. M., and Deneau, D. G. (1982) Classification of chronic blepharitis, Ophthalmology 89, 1173-1180.
Yamada, M., Mochizuki, H., Kawai, M., Tsubota, T., and Bryce, T. J. (in press) Decreased tear lipocalin concentration in patients with meibomian gland dysfunction, British Journal of Ophthalmology.
Pflugfelder, S. C., Farley, W., Luo, L., Chen, L. Z., de Paiva, C. S., Olmos, L. C., Li, D. Q., and Fini, M. E. (2005) Matrix metalloproteinase-9 knockout confers resistance to corneal epithelial barrier disruption in experimental dry eye, Am J Pathol 166, 61-71.
Strong, B., Farley, W., Stern, M. E., and Pflugfelder, S. C. (2005) Topical cyclosporine inhibits conjunctival epithelial apoptosis in experimental murine keratoconjunctivitis sicca, Cornea 24, 80-85.
Barabino, S., and Dana, M. R. (2004) Animal models of dry eye: a critical assessment of opportunities and limitations, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 1641-1646.
Sharma, A. (1993) Energetics of corneal epithelial cell-ocular mucus-tear film interactions: some surface-chemical pathways of corneal defense, Biophys Chem 47, 87-99.
Doane, M. G. (1994) Abnormalities of the structure of the superficial lipid layer on the in vivo dry-eye tear film, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 350, 489-493.
Golding, T. R., Bruce, A. S., and Mainstone, J. C. (1997) Relationship between tear-meniscus parameters and tear-film breakup, Cornea 16, 649-661.
Tseng, S. C., and Zhang, S. H. (1995) Interaction between rose bengal and different protein components, Cornea 14, 427-435.
Role of Proteins in Dry Eye Disease
The homeostasis of the cornea is dependent on the proper interaction of the aqueous layer, mucins, lipids and corneal epithelial cells. The aqueous layer contains the proteins that have interaction with lipids and corneal epithelial cells. There is compelling evidence that one of these proteins called tear lipocalin has an important role in these interactions.
In tears of patients with meibomian gland dysfunction, both seborrheic and obstructive, the concentration of tear lipocalin is reduced (56). These conditions are associated with tear film instability and taken together raise the possibility that meibomian gland dysfunction coupled with decreased lipocalin could result in or worsen an abnormal ocular surface. Tear lipocalin is the principal lipid binding protein in tears (Glasgow 1995) and evidence is mounting that TL has a significant role in protection of the ocular surface from desiccation. Tear lipocalin scavenges lipid from the cornea to prevent dry spots from forming on the cornea. Lipids bound to tear lipocalin in aqueous provide a reservoir of lipid molecules in equilibrium with the surface and could reduce evaporation of water. The concentration of tear lipocalin as well as other protein components are decreased in dry eye disease (Janssen 2000). Furthermore, the concentration of tear lipocalin correlates with tear film stability in dry eye patients (Schoenwald 1997). The ocular surface is abnormal in dry eye disease. One of the objective criteria used widely for the diagnosis of dry eye is the presence of fluorescein staining of the cornea in areas where the epithelium has been disrupted (Nichols 2004). Punctate epithelial erosions occur in seborrheic blepharitis, a disease associated with aqueous tear deficiency. Epithelial erosions are quite common in forms of meibomian gland dysfunction (McCulley 1982). Tear lipocalin is reduced in both seborrheic blepharitis and meibomian gland dysfunction (Yamada 2005). Tear lipocalin has been shown to pick up lipids from the surface of the cornea, hence preventing the situation to occur where lipid on the cornea prevents the epithelium from becoming wettable.
<NEXT>

Treatment of Dry Eye Disease

Treatment of Dry Eye Disease

The treatment of dry eye diseases is generally tailored for the specific cause if known. For example simply stopping the offending drug (e.g. antihistamine) that may have aggravated the condition could improve symptoms. Avoiding LASIK surgery is critical in one who has a propensity for dry eye disease. In patients with dry eye disease due to Rosacea, treatment might consist of a tetracycline derivative or even topical corticosteroids if indicated. If the cause is Vitamin A deficiency, replacement with Vitamin A can be curative. If the problem is radiation induced destruction of the lacrimal glands, an operation to partially close the eyelids may be indicated. In patients with inflammation in their lacrimal glands or cornea, topical or systemic anti-inflammatory medications may have a role. Cyclosporin decreases the inflammation associated with activated T cells and has been developed as a topical treatment for dry eye disease. Patients with lack of aqueous may benefit from artificial tear solutions. For each patient the treatment should be individualized.
<NEXT>